d) In May 1998, I delivered a communication on this new iconographic testimony of Lisbon at the IV Ibero-American History Days – The Ocean Routes (15th-17th centuries), where I considered it from the end of the 16th century, possibly by a Nordic artist well informed of Lisbon’s customs, and I recall the impact that the image received from António Borges Coelho, António Marques de Almeida, Cláudio Torres and other historians present, who discussed their details a lot. The text would come out in 1999 in the minutes “The Ocean Routes” (15th-16th centuries). I returned to comment on the play, with further development, in the book “Studies of Art History. New Contributions ”(CML, 2002, coordinated with Teresa Bispo).
e) Given the enormous iconographic interest of the painting, Dr. Irisalva Moita defended that he should be part of the Museum of the City, being contacted the services of the CML and the museum, but there was no interest in acquiring the work, because in the meantime there were doubts about its authenticity, with emphasis on the opinion of dr. Anísio Franco on the alleged falsity of the piece, so it was eventually acquired for the collection of Commander Joe Berardo.
f) In September 1999, at the aforementioned exhibition “Os Negros em Portugal: XV a XIX centuries”, art historian Fernando António Baptista Pereira commented on the authenticity of the piece, in the face of material examinations already carried out as to the support, highlighting its value as an olisiponense document and backing down the chronology I proposed to about 1570, at the time of D. Sebastião.
g) Regarding the presence of a black knight with the insignia of the Order of Santiago, which Diogo Ramada Curto highlights, due to the “anecdotal record”, as a factor of devaluation of painting, I recall what Didier Lahon says about blacks who received the degree of cavalry (Prince Mawlay Muhammad ech Cheikh, son of an ally of D. Sebastião who died in Alcácer Quibir, received in 1594 the knight habit of that Order, after converting to Christianity, this being only one of several examples).
h) Dr. Irisalva Moita identified, within the scope of this exhibition, all the houses represented there, highlighting the doubts that the piece had clarified for the history of the city; I remember hearing her say, in vehement refutation of the fraud thesis, that “if someone had wanted to make a false statement and invent a plausible scenario, this was impossible, because it implied a knowledge of ancient Lisbon that did not yet exist”!
i) More recently, the beautiful book “The Global City. On the Streets of Renaissance Lisbon ”, by Annemarie Jordan and Kate Lowe, where two other paintings are studied, belonging to the Society of Antiquaries of London, which represent Rua dos Mercadores (or Ferros), both with formal characteristics, of time and style with the Chafariz painting, even if painted on canvas, which, like this one, are now raising doubts and suspicions about its authenticity, as the text by Diogo Ramada Curto reveals.
j) The existence of these new pieces leads to the presumption that there were cycles of Olisiponian representations, with an accent on the miscegenated nature of his Tardoquinhentista experience, something that at the time was highlighted by foreign travelers who demanded Lisbon and of which these three paintings would be the only testimony remaining.
l) That is, in the context of the Dual Monarchy, exacerbated views of the city of Lisbon as the epicenter of a ‘global world’ were desired by the Portuguese authorities (read Coelho Gasco, for example), and it is this view (regardless of whether it corresponds or not to the existing reality) that prevailed in this type of orders.